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The KHO News is published monthly
1 USD=Rp9400  1 AUD=Rp 7,060
February 2005
Bali Dec 31: People came from far and wide to celebrate new year with us. Canada, France, Holland. Australia, Java, Sumatra and Lombok were all represented. 
Jamal and Albert
Jenny, Derek & friends
John and Robert
Local News
Country Flooded
Rainy season is fully underway across the Indonesian archipelago. Heavy rain has been reported across the country, with heavy falls in Ache, hindering Tsunami rescue efforts. Jakarta and Java has been awash and Bali has had spot flooding in the lower areas.
Jamal's Village Flooded
After heavy rains on Monday Jamal's home village was flooded. 
Fortunately Jamal's house is a little higher than others and they only had 15 cm of water in the house for a couple of hours. Nearby houses weren't so lucky, some had up to
a meter of water. Jamal's Mum, Amih, said the new house is far 
better than the old one where they often had to put the beds on chairs so they could sleep with 20 cm of water in the house. This time they spent 
he night with water sloshing under the bed. Constant SMS's were being received at the KHO by Jamal with updates as the water rose.
New Rp 100,000 Note
After the discovery of thousands of counterfeit Rp 100,000 notes in circulation, allegedly produced by Bank Indonesia employees, the bank has issued a new Rp100,000 note featuring founding president Soekarno and vice-president Hatta.
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14 Tourists Drown
Lifeguard on Kuta Beach
Bali: At least 14 tourists, including seven expatriates holidaying on Bali resort island, drowned in Kuta beach last year, an official said on Friday. Another 309 domestic and foreign tourists were rescued while swimming at the beach.
Tsunami Stops Pirates
Attacks on shipping in the Malacca Straits, the world's busiest sea lane,
 stopped after the Dec. 26 tsunami, according to a shipping group. "There hasn't been a single attack in any part of the Malacca Straits since the tsunami," said Noel Choong, head of the Kuala Lumpur-based Piracy Reporting Centre. "If they were coming out of Aceh, we assume the pirates lost their boats." Pirates attack shipping in the Malacca Straits using speed boats, armed with machine guns.
KHO Jeep gets head job
The KHO Jeep is in for a complete engine overhaul. The motor has been low on compression and burning oil, so time for a rebore.
Engine removed
Head mechanic, Pak Made says the job will take about a week. The head will be rebored, pistons and other major components replaced.
Jetstar to Indonesia
Jetstar Asia, the international
Singapore based budget carrier of Qantas Ltd, will fly to Jakarta and Surabaya, starting February. As yet no plans have been announced to fly to Bali.
Jetstar Airbus 320 - Singapore
Tsunami Aftermath
The other day Jamal rang a guy advertising land in Canggu.
The land was very cheap, Jamal asked is it near the beach?, the guy answered. "Oh! no!, no!, it is a long, long, long way from
the beach, very safe position!"
Fiskal Tax to be lifted
Bail Chamber of Commerce head, Gede Wiratha said the Rp 1,000,000 (A$150) FISCAL tax, payable by all Indonesians departing Indonesia, will be removed in March 2005. This contradicts Director General of Taxation's recent statement that there would be no change in 2005.
ASEAN Free Visa
Citizens of ASEAN countries, will no longer need visas when travelling to 10 countries in the region by the end of 2005. Ex Malaysian PM, Mahathir Mohammed went further proposing a single visa for entry to all ASEAN countries by foreigners.
Indonesia 60 day visa?
At the same time Indonesia announced it may extend the 30 day Visa on Arrival to 60 days.
Bali Booming
Final arrivals for 2004 show Bali set an all-time record for foreign visitors, 1.45 million, up 3.2% from 2000 The Asia Pacific Region dominated with over ¼ of a million from Australia. ASEAN visitors increased 150% while, US and European still down 33% & 37%. 
AWAIR Flies Again
Air Waggon Air (AWAIR), started flying in Indonesia in 2000 with 2 Airbus 310 aircraft. In 2002 they ceased operations and returned the aircraft to the lessors who stored them in the Mojave Desert, USA.
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Air Asia
Air Asia, the aggressive low cost Malaysian Airline, have revived AWAIR. Air Asia purchased the defunct airline for a nominal fee to gain it's Domestic Air Operators certificate. In order to abide with local ownership rules Air Asia owns 49% of AWAIR, with the majority share holding held by Indonesian nominees. The airline leases 2 Boeing 737 aircraft from Air Asia. 
Nyepi Cometh
The Balinese New Year or silent day this year is from dawn on Fri Mar 11 until dawn Mar 12. Everybody must stay indoors and not show any light during the 24 hr period. 
The Calcium Curse
Since we renovated the KHO  bathroom we have been plagued   calcium deposits from the water. Bore water is notorious for this. It coats onto the tiles and floor, taps, basin and only can be removed by lots of  scrubbing with Jex. Too hard!.  Now I realize why Indonesians always use white tiles in the bathroom.  If in Australia the cure would be to use CLR, very expensive and not available in Indonesia. I asked around locally if anyone knew how to remove the 
calcium deposits, nobody seemed to know. Then I tried a Google query on the internet, I just got commercial cleaners, then I had an idea add  'Grandma's remedy' to the query. Success!
The answer "Vinegar." Immediately I tried it. Presto! it really, actually, works.
KHO Water Supply
KHO Town water supply comes from the government PDAM. The water is drawn from a huge deep bore and pumped to the houses. We pay no water rates but receive a monthly water account for around A$8 p/month. In case of supply interruption we have a 500 litre stainless steel tank on the roof.
Hospitals not Hotels
Bali Tourism chief, Gede Nurjaya, said foreign investors should look to invest in modern medical facilities in Bali rather than hotels. There is already an over supply of hotel rooms, +/- 35,000. Investing in medical facilities makes sense when you consider the ageing tourist population who visit Bali.
KHO Power Cut
A neighbour cut down a tree in the vacant block next door to the KHO. In doing so they broke the power lines. Jamal called PLN, the electricity company who responded in a record 15 minutes.
Power Restoration
Famous Indonesians
Edward (Eddi) Van Halen and is the drummer and founding member of the heavy metal band Van Halen. He was born in Amsterdam, Netherlands to
Jan and Eugenia van Halen. Who were of Dutch-Indonesian decent. The family moved to the USA 1962. Later Eddi and his brother Alex formed the group Van Halen.
Bali Cheap Eats
Jalan Kunti No 2 (Villa's/Bali Deli street) is a new cheap eat called Warung Italia. Run by expat Italian 
Tony,  there are a'la carte pasta's - spaghetti, gnocchi & ravioli. The pana fungi sauce is the best. From the counter a variety of italian dishes, prices range from Rp 5,000 to Rp 20,000. The place is packed and it is advisable to book a table if you wish to have dinner after 8pm. For bookings phone 74 5430.
Jl Raya Semer 9 Kerobokan is a   great little restaurant called Globe Café,
run by Nina and her friendly staff, it is mainly patronized by ex-pats. They have a home delivery service and a high-speed Internet Café. Breakfast is great value, full American Breakfast Rp 26,000. (A$3.50) The menu features Thai Stir-fries, Soups, Guacamole, Taco's, Ausie steak, fabulous Foccacias, Pasta, Pizzas, Salads and arguably the best Hamburger in Bali.  Home delivery phone 73 6026.
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Mystique Hotel web site
Saturday we were the guests of Mr Norman Rowe at his Bali Mystique Hotel for dinner in their newly opened Sunset View restaurant. 
We were joined by Stella from Venice and Di from Perth, who were both guests at Hotel Mystique. For entree we shared an anti pasta, breads with olive oil, & olives and Norman's favourite potato wedges.  Stella couldn't resist the pizza, said it was 'very good' She should know being from Italy. Di had the beef, said it was brilliant. Jamal had the Spaghetti Marinara, he judges restaurants on their ability to cook spaghetti, 'enak sekali' said Jamal. 
I had the gnocchi, with prawns and Italian sausage, excellent!. I'm sure this restaurant will be a success, some of the best food I've ever tasted in Bali at affordable prices. Norman told us his Chef
is Balinese, however has had considerable experience overseas. The atmosphere is sophisticated but relaxed. With a little encouragement, Norman might tinkle the ivories and play some Cole Porter for you on his grand piano, the centre piece of the restaurant. Bookings 73 0465.
Living in Bali
Living is Bali is not always the paradise it may seem to the average tourist. Living here presents many problems and frustrations. I guess the same as everywhere, but how would you handle this one?
The locking mechanism on the back door broke and would no longer lock. I pulled it out, opened it up, it was un-repairable. Off to the local hardware store for a new insert.
Shop one, "Oh yes we have." Nothing to do with it, completely different size, would have to have a new door made. Price A$4.28
Shop two:- "Oh yes, we have this one."  Well, it was a closer fit, but a totally different kind, with no opening for the handles or the square peg to fit.  Price $5.20.
Shop three:- The expensive Chinese hardware frequented mainly by ex-pats. The girl says "Yes we have that one out the back," 
she returns, it is perfect. She said "You want to know the price, don't you?'" I said "Yes of course," she said "I don't know the price, it is old stock and the boss is not in." At this stage I'm nervously fumbling for a cigarette. " Can you come back this afternoon, when the boss returns?" .... "Where is the boss?"  ... "He is having lunch." ..."Where is he having lunch?".... "Over there,"  she points to a Warung (small cafe') over and down the road. I said "Why don't you, take the lock over there and 
ask the boss how much?" .... "Oh ok."  Off she goes. 5 mins. later, she returns, "that will be $16"... "That's expensive" ..she agrees & says "But, it's a real one!"
Moral of the Story
If you want a good price at the Chinese hardware, don't interrupt the boss during his lunch break.
House Wanted
Very important expat female working for very important Non-Government organization (NGO), wants a house in South Bali. Must have:- leak proof roof, electricity with Stayvol, town water supply + water filter, 2 phone lines, 2 bedrooms and office, stainless steel kitchen, bathroom with bath, hot and cold water, postal & newspaper delivery, remote private location, close to shops,  no Balinese neighbours, no pigs, no chickens or children, definitely no Balinese temple. Essential there is a large garden with paddy field views, for 13 cats, 5 dogs and 1 almost house trained Indonesian boy. Swimming pool a plus. Please no Balinese landlords. Will pay to up to Rp19 Million for a 1 year walk in - storm out contract,
Reply KHO News Box B4I8U
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Post New Year: We travelled down to Padangbai again (see December edition) with (L-R) David from Perth, Onney, Desy, Amang, 
Jamal and John. We spend an evening at the OK Café  where they have a duo playing (back). As usual we stayed at Kerti Bungalows.
Yong Fu & tourists - Singapore
Yong Fu, John's long time friend in Surabaya flew on Singapore Airlines, first class, with a tour group to Singapore for the new year break. He celebrated New Year Eve on Sentosa Island. Yong Fu complained the fireworks were cancelled because of the Tsunami. 
Ines and Andi also travelled to Singapore with cut price carrier Air Asia, then on to Sentosa Island for New Year. Ines complained the fireworks were also cancelled and they wouldn't refund her $30 per person tickets. Apart from that they had a nice time. Ines and Andi also visited Penang and Kuala Lumpur for a few hours.
Chicken Schnitzel
Chicken fillets Bread
Egg Brown onion
Flour Salt & Pepper
Make bread into breadcrumbs with blender and place on plate. Blend egg, onion, salt & pepper in blender place in dipping plate. Place some plain flour on another plate. Beat chicken fillet with tenderizing hammer into thin fillet. Dip in flour, dip in egg mixture, dip in bread crumbs. Pat crumbs to chicken to make sure all the egg is absorbed. Keep in refrigerator until ready to deep fry. Serve with lemon, salad and French fries.
Check out the KHO Recipe Book
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The inspiration to name the Indonesian Satellite system PALAPA came from the Amukti Palapa Oath, sworn by Gajah Mada, The Prime minister of the 14th Century Majapahit Kingdom, who said : "When I have succeeded in the integrating the archipelago, I shall rest.". The launch of Indonesia's first satellite Palapa-A1 was July 9, 1976 from Cape Canaveral. Indonesia was the fourth country in the world to launch its own communications satellite. Not a mean feat for a supposedly "Third World" country. 
Palapa-A1 allowed, Indonesia's only television station, the government owned Television 
republik Indonesia TVRI to be beamed right 
across the archipelago, using satellite receivers and VHF repeater stations for local reception. Many poor village's only had public Tv which was often mounted in an open area so in the evenings the villagers could watch.
Palapa B-1
Palapa-B1 was launched in June 1983 on board the space shuttle. Palapa-B2 also was launched aboard a shuttle, in February 1984, but it was placed in an improper orbit when the perigee kick motor, provided by an outside vendor, failed. In November 1984, a space shuttle crew recovered Palapa-B2 and returned it to Earth for the insurance underwriters. Boeing refurbished the satellite, which eventually was sold back to 
Indonesia. Renamed Palapa-B2R, the satellite was successfully relaunched in April 1990 aboard a Delta II rocket.
Palapa Control Indonesia
Since 1976, eight satellites of Palapa series have been launched and and the later generation provided services that extend far and beyond Indonesia's boundaries. PT. SATELINDO as the owner and operator of Palapa-C, has played important role in developing the third generation of Palapa satellites. 
Launch Chronology
Palapa-A1, July 9, 1976 from Cape Canaveral, Florida, USA
Palapa-A2, March 10, 1977 from Cape Canaveral, design life of the first Palapa-A series was 7 years.
Palapa-B1, June 18, 1983 from Cape Canaveral, Florida, USA, replacing the Palapa-A1 satellite.
Palapa-B2P, March 21, 1987, the replacement of the Palapa B2 which failed to reach orbit.
Palapa-B2, April 14, 1990, the replacement of the Palapa-B1.
Palapa-B4, May 14, 1992, from Cape Canaveral, Florida, USA
Palapa-C1, January 31, 1996, from Cape Canaveral, using a Atlas launch rocket.
Palapa-C2, May 15, 1996, from Kourou French Guyana, using a Arianne IV, replacing Palapa B2P at 113 degree East.
Palapa B4-Telkom 2
In 2002 Telkom Indonesia placed a contract with Arianespace to launch Telkom 2, from Guyana, South America, in early 2005. Telkom 2 will replace Palapa B4. 
The Palapa B series were originally manufactured by Huges Systems Model HS376 later taken over by Boeing and becoming the B376. The satellite rotates at 7 RPM, while the dish remains in a stable position to the earth.
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Jan 7: Speaking on the Australian national ABC Tv's 7.30 report, opposition Foreign Minister, Kevin Rudd said "The Howard Government cut and axed Radio Australia 
several years ago. I think the time has come for the Howard Government to learn from that mistake, rebuild Radio Australia, so that if we are now engaged in doing good things in Indonesia, let's get the message out, and to do that, we've got to have the capacity to do it, and Radio Australia, because of the importance of short-wave transmission services as a means of receiving news across the region, is a very important national asset which must now be rebuilt."
Transmitter SOLD
Soon after its election in 1996 the Howard Government cut the ABC's annual budget by $66 million. Radio Australia, the nation's voice to the Asia-Pacific, has been severely cut back through loss of funding and the closure and sale of the Cox Peninsula short-wave transmitter, the most powerful in Australia. The transmitter is now owned and operated by the British Pentecostal Christian fundamentalist group, Christian Vision, with station call sign, VOICE. Now Radio Australia is forced to rent 5.5 hrs a week from Voice.
Most Powerful in Australia
How Embarrassing
"Nothing could better illustrate the incomprehension which permeates the Howard Government, than the sorry saga of Radio Australia," says political analyst Peter Robinson. "Parts of Indonesia are ablaze in 
sectarian violence, pitting Christians against Muslims, who make the majority of the Indonesian population. Surely the last thing Australia should be doing is to lend its imprimatur, to a powerful radio voice propagandizing the Christian religion. Broadcasting Christian messages into countries such as Indonesia will do little to ease tension between Christian and Islamic communities originating from radio bands once occupied by Radio Australia."
"Honest John"  Howard
Radio Australia History
In 1939, the new war in Europe caught Australia unready and feverish attempts were made to launch a new international radio broadcasting service. 
The Prime Minister of Australia during the wartime era, Sir Robert Menzies, was born on Dec. 20, 1894. 
The date for the inauguration of "Australia Calling" just happened to be Dec. 20, 1939, the PM's 45th birthday.
1947 Listener reception verification card QSL
But that's not all.  Another transmitter base for Radio Australia was also inaugurated on this same date, though in a subsequent year. Later the name changed to Radio Australia, the laughing kookaburra became the stations call sign.
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Apart from the sale of the Cox Peninsular transmitter, Radio Australia was forced by the budgetary cuts to close its short-wave relay 
station located at Carnarvon, Western Australia in June 30, 1996. The station was very expensive to run because all its power was generated on site for several 300 KW transmitters. The first two transmitters, the 250 kW and the 100 kW Harris unit, were removed and sold for scrap. The third unit, 300 kW, was removed and re-installed at the Darwin radio base (later sold to VOICE). The 100 kw. transmitter at Carnarvon was moved to Shepparton in Victoria. Carnarvon is the 6th short-wave transmitter base operated by Radio Australia to be axed. Now radio Australia is limited to transmitting from its original WWII base at Shepparton Victoria, where there are 6 transmitters each 100KW all running 24 hours a day, mostly with English Language Programs. 
About 4 hours a day in total is Indonesian, but only on one, (and a little bit on two) transmitters. All Indonesian programs are also on satellite. PAS 2 & 8. There's only one offshore transmitter and that's in Taiwan. RA rents also 5.5 hours a day from VOICE.
Canarvon has a population of 10,000. During the 1960s Carnarvon became the site for the NASA and for international radio 
and communications operated by Radio Australia had the Overseas Telecommunications Commission. North of Canarvon is the wreck of the German raider, HSK Kormoran, which sunk the HMAS Sydney during WWII.
German raider - HSK Kormoran
The total company of 645 were lost from HMAS Sydney, whilst 318 survived from HSK Kormoran. 
HSK Kormoran survivors
Over the intervening years many have posed the question "how could this be?" In the course of the War at Sea over 1939-45, HMAS Sydney was the only warship to be sunk by an Armed Merchant Raider.  It was very unusual  for a Naval ship to be sunk with a total loss of her crew.
HMAS Sydney
Shepparton city situated in northern Victoria, Australia has a population of around 53,000 and is renowned for its fruit production.
Radio Australia's transmission centre was built in Shepparton during WWII. Most of the original equipment was built by Amalgamated Wireless Australia. 
Equipment room, Shepparton
Shepparton Antenna Array
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RA Transmissions
The budget slashed Shepparton signal can be received on a 
sophisticated communications receiver such as the KHO National Panasonic DR48.
Very few Indonesian can afford a communications receiver or a satellite receiver to receive the transmissions from Pas 8.
Short-wave radio broadcasts are the only foreign broadcasts  that can be received by the Indonesian 
people, on cheap,  +/- $30 radios. 
Since the Howard cuts and the sale of the Cox Peninsular transmitter to the Christian broadcaster, VOICE, Radio Australia have had to transmit from their old site in
Shepparton, Victoria, 1000's of miles from Asia and the Indian Ocean.
Where is my ABC?
Home Made Radio
Some people resort to building their own home made short wave radios from recycled components. 
Local boy with homemade radio
The main coil is homemade and wound on a piece of scrap plastic pipe and it runs on 2 x 9 volt batteries. With a long outdoor aerial hung from a tree.
The BBC, Voice of America and VOICE and many other international stations can be clearly received, but sadly the signal from Radio Australia is too weak to be received on a simple set.
English Lessons
Before the Howard cuts to Radio Australia, each morning schools in Indonesia listened to the excellent Learning English program. Many of my friends in Lombok told me they learnt their English from Radio Australia before the signal disappeared in June 1997.
RA Deprived Bali School Kids
VOICE International is the brainchild of Christian Vision, a non-profit charitable company broadcasting around the globe via stations in London, the USA, Chile, Zambia, Mozambique, Angola, East Timor and Australia. VOICE, previously known as Christian Voice, began operating in May 2000 with only two employees. 
After Christian Vision purchased the former Radio Australia transmitter site in the Northern Territory, Australia. Land was then purchased in Maroochydore, Queensland,
Cox Peninsular Transmitter
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and a few more employees were hired to begin the mammoth task of building VOICE, a world class broadcast centre, now the largest radio complex in Queensland and the second largest in Australia.
Maroochydore Studios
VOICE now employs over 60 full time staff including the technicians operating the transmitters in the Northern Territory. 
VOICE is expanding at a rapid rate, with the potential to reach at least 2.8 billion people with the message of God and hope.
Christian Vision
The Christian Vision signal rockets into Indonesia loud and clear. On first listening to the station it sounds like an Australian pop station. Up to the minute music, news and current affairs. They clearly say the station is from Australia, no doubt leading people to think they are listening to Radio Australia. 
Reception or Deception
Last Sunday (Jan 30) I was listening to a Radio Australia Sports on 17.775 Mhtz broadcast from the Darwin station, then without notice in the middle of the programme, the station changed straight from Radio Australia to VOICE. Then comes the Christian propaganda cleverly disguised at first, then the message. No wonder Indonesians think this is Australian government propaganda designed to push western ways and convert people from Islam. If only the average Australian knew. Does Howard condone these broadcasts, or was it, just a case of take the money and run?
One of Voice's 10 Studios
VOICE Founder
Bob Edmiston set up the evangelical group, owners of VOICE, 12 years ago and has already invested more than 65 million dollars of his own wealth in the venture. Edmiston
was born in India in 1946, the son of a British wartime pilot, he started his business career as a bank clerk when 17 years old.  He owns a multi-million pound West Midlands motor and property business with a turnover of £300+ million. He was brought up a Roman Catholic, "It was boring and totally  irrelevant," he said. "I believed in God, in fact I feared Him and the thought of dying and meeting Him was dreadful" . But at the age of 17 everything changed. Bob was taken to a Pentecostal church. The thing that struck me immediately was that these people were happy. 
Note Mr Howard
Mr Edmiston is no fool he could see the advantage of the Cox Peninsular transmitter. Pity the Howard Government didn't realize why he was so keen to buy the 
transmitter, to beam his message in to Asia, when Radio Australia should be doing exactly that, bringing education, unbiased news and current affairs to the region.
'I don't know why they call it a wireless, have you ever looked inside one?' -Graham Kennedy1958
Guglielmo Marconi, b. Apr. 25, 1874, d. July 20, 1937, is known as the father of wireless. He was the son of Giuseppe Marconi of Bologna, 
Italy. and Annie Jameson, daughter of an Irish family. The young Marconi developed a deep interest in electrical phenomena. When he read of the experiments of Heinrich Hertz on electromagnetic waves, he became obsessed with the idea that such waves could be used for transmitting information without the need for the wire connection of the electric telegraph. In 1894, Marconi began his wireless telegraphy project by repeating some of Hertz's experiments with a number of improvements. Marconi offered his wireless communication system
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to the Italian government, but it was refused. In London in 1896 he first patented his system and then secured backing for it. The next year, Marconi formed his wireless telegraph company. His four-circuit tuning, patented in 1900, led to widespread use of his system. Universal adoption of wireless telegraphy was rendered even more certain by Marconi's famous experiment in December 1901. In St. John's, Newfoundland, he received a radio-wave signal sent out from Cornwall, England. He received many honours, including sharing the Nobel Prize for physics in 1909. When Marconi died in Rome, he was accorded the
Marconi Room on the Titanic
unique tribute of a two minute silence by all radio stations throughout the world. AWA Australia was originally part of the Marconi company. 
Wireless Telegraphy
Initially only a carrier wave signal could be sent from the Marconi transmitter. With the aid of a Morse key to trigger the transmitter it was possible to send a message. 
Morse & Code
Samuel Morse
Morse died 2 years before Marconi was born. He demonstrated the telegraph in 1837 Morse developed 
"lightning wires" and "Morse code", and applied for a patent in 1840.
Later a line was constructed between Baltimore and Washington. The first message, sent on May 24, 1844, was "What hath God wrought!" Morse's original code consisted of combinations of dots and dashes that represented numbers. Each represented a word. This required looking up the number in a book to find the word it represented. 
A telegraph key was then used to tap out the sequence 
Telegraph key
of dots, dashes, and pauses that represented the number. Although Morse invented the telegraph, he lacked technical expertise. He entered an agreement with Alfred Vail who built more practical equipment. Vail developed a system  where each letter or symbol is sent individually, using combinations of dots, dashes.
How it Worked
When the sender Key is pressed down the battery is connected to the receiver buzzer, making the buzzer sound either a long or a short sound.
A ._ H .... O _ _ _ V ..._
B _... I .. P ._. W . _ _ 
C _._. J ._ _ _ Q _._ X _.._
D _.. K _._ R _._ Y _._
E . L ._.. S ... Z _ _ ..
F .._. M _ T _
G _ _. N _. U .._
Still In Use Today
International Morse code is still in use today, although it is almost exclusively used by amateur radio operators. Until 2003 the International Telecommunications Union mandated Morse code proficiency as part of the amateur radio license.   In some countries, certain parts of the amateur radio bands are still reserved for transmission of Morse code signals only. Since Morse relies on only a steady (un-modulated) radio signal, it requires less complex equipment than other forms of radio communication, and it can be used in very high noise, low signal environments. It also requires very little bandwidth, typically 100-150 Hz, and facilitates communication between amateur radio operators who speak different languages.
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The Telephone
Alexander Graham Bell 
Alexander Graham Bell was born in 1847 in Edinburgh, Scotland. He moved to Ontario, and then to the United States, settling in Boston, before beginning his career as an inventor. Throughout his life, Bell had been interested in the education of deaf people. This interest lead him to invent the microphone and, in 1876, his "electrical speech machine,"
which we now call a telephone. By 1878, Bell had set up the first telephone exchange in New Haven, Connecticut. By 1884, long distance connections were made between Boston, 
Massachusetts and New York City. 
How it Worked
Bell's microphone was quite simple. It was full of finely powdered carbon. When the voice vibrated the carbon, the resistance changed resulting in the voltage being modulated with the voice. At the receiving end the electro magnet vibrated the Iron diaphragm in sympathy with the voice reproducing the sound. 
Radio is Born
The first extended broadcast of the human voice was transmitted through the air on Dec. 24, 1906 from Brant Rock, Massachusetts.
A Canadian engineer, Reginald Fessenden, who had worked for Thomas Edison invented sound radio.
The Tom Thumb home built radio featured in the August 1947 Radio & Hobbies magazine, Australia.
Read the full article
Radio City NYC
Radio City Music Hall, New York boasts 6,500 seats and is listed as the largest cinema in the world. I have attended shows there many times and was always struck by the amazing sound quality.
The ribbon microphone was created in 1931 by RCA especially for Radio City. 
It  revolutionized the recording and broadcast industry, setting new new standards in frequency response. The clarity and realism were unmatched by any of the condenser microphones of its day.
Know as a ribbon microphone, it had a ribbon of steel stretched past a large magnet. When sound vibrated the ribbon a small electric current was generated and sent via a transformer to an amplifier. The mics were know for their excellent high frequency and bass response.
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Jan 18: Airbus showed the first A380 Super Jumbo to the world with a ceremony in Toulouse, France. The aircraft is expected to be flown by the end of February,    a month behind schedule. The A380 will take over from the Boeing B747 as Queen of the Sky and become the flagship for many airlines. "The aircraft is over weight and over budget" says Reuters. Airbus claim they are fixing the weight problem by removing seats and offering standing room tickets. 
Although uncomfortable for an 18 hour flight, the tickets would be very cheap and the passengers would not suffer "Deep Vein Thrombosis."   Emirates plan a "Mecca Bar"  in the standing room area, they and Virgin Atlantic are already pressing Airbus for a 
stretched version. Emirates want 150 extra seats ASAP, while Richard Branson from Virgin wants 90 extra wide pitch seats. 
The standard Emirates 451 seat/3-400 standing configuration
Qantas announced they will run the standard 555 seat model with only 501 seats, to allow for union-rule crew sleeping areas.
Singapore Airlines will take the first 4 aircraft. These aircraft will be used in the extensive 1 year test program for which SIA received a hefty discount. Airbus promise they will cut and polish any scratches and give the aircraft a free grease and oil change before delivery.
Classic Comfort
Airlines say, with increased floor space they will provide bars, duty-free shops, gyms etc. 
On board Duty-free shop?
Sleeping compartment?
State  rooms?
They said that about the B747, 35 years ago? 'Come on, get real' they will just cram in more seats.
Check out this fantastic cut away drawing of the A 380. CLICK HERE
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John's Memoir continues ................
More Shows
With the introduction of Videotape, many afternoon variety, quiz and game shows were produced. Video Village, Make mine Music, Time for Terry and many others.
Time for Terry
The 1 hour afternoon variety show, Time for Terry, starring English comedian Terry O'Neil.
The show ran for a few years against Tommy Hanlon's very successful show on opposition channel GTV-9, It could be You.
Tommy Hanlon
Time for Terry - Joe Hudson, Ian Turpie, Olivia Newton-John, Terry O'Neil, Vi Greenhalf, Brian Naylor and Ivan Hutchinson.
Time for Terry also featured a very young, Olivia Newton-John before she went overseas and became an International star.
Channel 7 spent a lot of money on the show, to try and break Tommy Hanlon's grip on the time slot.
 Market Research
The station Management decided they would find out what was wrong with TFT using the new market research techniques, being used in England and America. At huge expense Dr Belsen, a professor of marketing psychology was bought from England to research Time for Terry and see if he could come up with a way of improving the show. The research sessions were held at the 
Chevron Hotel Melbourne
Chevron Hotel Melbourne a group of people were asked to attend. They were shown a kine-film of It Could be You and Time for Terry. After they were interviewed. I was often rostered to the Chevron to help with the technical side. Dr Belsen interviewed hundreds of people. The study went on for weeks finally Dr Belsen presented his report. Station gossip said that
Dr Belsen told the HSV manager that he has learned from his months of research that Time for Terry fails because Terry O'Neil has 
dirty cigarette stained teeth, this revolts the housewives. We recommend you tell him to get his teeth cleaned. The horrified HSV manager retorted "I can't tell him that! - he is a big star", end of meeting. Dr Belsen flew back to England and was never heard of again. Eventually the Time for Terry  folded and Terry O'Neil was never seen again. 
Norm Spencer Specials
In the 60's Norman Spencer produced a number of Tv specials in which he produced on 16mm film as well as with studio segments.
One of the first specials The June Bronhill Special featuring the  Australian star on her triumphant return from London.
June Bronhill 
Gordon Bennett, Norm Spencer, June Bronhill & Eric Scherer
Other shows were, the Pat and Olivia Special starring Pat Carroll and Olivia Newton-John, filmed in various locations around Melbourne. 
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 Kerobokan Home Office News
Page 15 
Pat & Olivia Special
Pat and Olivia on Location
Another shot from the show
Later Olivia won a free trip to England on the Johnny O'Keef show, partner Pat Carrol followed.
Technical Nightmare
In those days synchronous pre-recorded sound with the performer miming was a technical nightmare especially if 240 volt mains power was not available.
Olivia & Pat off to England
On location a 16mm magnetic replay machine was connected through an amplifier to a speaker for the performer to hear the replay and mime the song.
First the song to be performed was audio recorded in the sound 
studio, then taken to the film department and transferred to 16mm magnetic recording film.
The 16mm player had synchronous motors, which means they run a constant speed to the 50 cycles per second mains frequency. The 16mm film camera was also fitted with a synchronous 50c/s motor. When connected to the mains power the system worked perfectly, resulting in the film and sound being in perfect sync.
In those days generators were not very stable an could run up to 20% fast or slow resulting in the replay sound being very fast or slow, making it very difficult for the performer to mime. The only answer the HSV technical department could come up with was a Hot Water Urn, full of water, attached to the generator. The generator speed could be adjusted buy changing the heat settings on the urn. Off for full speed, low, medium or high to slow the sound down. The performers worked under great difficulty, with the sound speed changing and trying to hear the replay over the sound of the noisy generator.
Later on things improved with the purchase of a Nagra Mk III ¼" film recorder. The Nagra was far more
Nagra Mark III
portable than the original set up and ran on dry batteries. The machine recorded a Pilot Tone from the camera motor which allowed for perfect frame synchronization when dubbed to 16mm magnetic tape.
The Complete Text of John's Memoir "Channel 7 Days" is now On-line - CLICK HERE
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